The plant Solanum americanum Miller of family Solanaceae is traditionally used as a medicinal plant widely antiseptic cadalgia and gripe. Present study has tried to In vitro antimicrobial study (well diffusion method) of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Solanum americanum leaves were investigated individually. Four bacterial species (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacterial species) and two fungal strains were used for study these are Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was found in methanol plant material extracts, followed by other extracts. Aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. While no extract showed anti bacterial activity against Candida albicans. The results of this study indicates that the leaf extract have more potential of antimicrobial activity and is concentration dependent.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial pathogen causing opportunistic infections in humans, particularly among immuno compromised patients, and because of its ubiquitous nature, ability to survive in adverse conditions and affinity for moist environment remains a common pathogen in intensive care units (ICU). In the present study, prevalence rate of P. aeruginosa in maternity wards and labor rooms in various hospitals of Gulbarga region, South India and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern (AST) are reported. Present study was based on the 190 samples collected from animate and inanimate objects from maternity wards and labor rooms of several hospitals in Gulbarga region, during Oct 2008 to Jan 2010. A total of 43 P. aeruginosa were isolated, indicating on isolation rate of 22.63% and the isolation rate was slightly higher in maternity wards than the labor rooms. There is an increased multidrug resistance among P. aeruginosa which may be due to the selective pressure from the use of antimicrobial agents which is a major determinant for the convergence of resistant strains, especially in hospital environments.
Preeclampsia is a frequent and potentially dangerous complication of pregnancy. A case control study was carried out to assess the levels of homocysteine, lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with preeclampsia. The levels of malondialdehyde and homocysteine was significantly increased in patients with preeclampsia (p<0.001). The levels of GPx and SOD were significantly increased in patients with preeclampsia (p<0.001).Levels of homocysteine correlated positively with the levels of MDA and negatively with GPx and SOD. Oxidative stress may thus be a possible link in between homocysteine and preeclampsia.
An attempt has been made to study the marketing of sweet orange in Almora district of Kumaon region (Uttarakhand). Primary data was collected from various stakeholders constituting forty growers and five intermediaries operating at each level of marketing channels. Six distribution channels were identified. More than 57 per cent of the produce was sold directly to the village trader. Marketing cost varied from `278 per quintal to `894.16 per quintal in channel I. A major component of the marketing cost of the producer was cost incurred on mules (`150 per quintal). The producers were earning 100 per cent margin in channel I and channel II. The producer’s share in consumer’s rupee was 9.38 per cent and 8.60 per cent in channel II and I respectively. Channel IV was the most efficient channel with efficiency of 1.27. Channel VI was least efficient (1.00). The producers are getting only 9 per cent of the consumer’s price. The spatial price difference between the local market and distant market is very wide i.e. more than `2000 per quintal. The main component of cost of producers is the labor cost and transportation cost borne by producers. The farmers of the hilly areas must be properly linked to the market through proper roads and other infrastructure and through co-operative federation. There is a need to form the active marketing self- help groups which can take the advantage of the distant and competitive markets, benefiting the members by remunerative price. To reduce the spatial differences in the price of produce, better transport and storage facilities are also required.
The present study was carried out to assess the levels of thyroid hormones in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA)(n=50). Serum T3,T4, TSH levels were measured in the early follicular phase of menstrual cycle. The levels were not significant in the patients when compared to the patients with RA. 6 patients (12%) had TSH increased and T3 and T4 levels decreased and responded to thyroxin treatment suggesting that hypothyroidism must be considered as a biochemical investigation in patients presenting with arthritis.
Banana fruits infected with Macrophomina phaseolina R-4242, Fusarium oxysporum sp.QJC-1403 and Nigrospora oryzae NRRL-54030 had deteriorated within eight days of incubation at room temperature (27±2oC). Extracts from the infected fruits exhibited cellulase activity, however uninfected fruits lacked cellulase activity. The cellobiohydrolase (C1) activity could be traced on 2nd day of inoculation in all the four varieties of banana which continued to increase till the end of the observation period. However, the C1 activity showed decreasing trend by the end of 8th day in Cavendish and Curry varieties infected with N. oryzae and F. oxysporum respectively. Endoglucanase (CX) activity was also witnessed in the diseased tissues of all the four varieties of banana which, however, varied with the pathogens inoculated. CX activity decreased after 6th day of infection in all the varieties of banana under investigation. The occurrence of cellulase in banana fruits infected with the three fruit-rot fungi and its absence in uninfected fruits suggest the role of this enzyme in pathogenicity of the fungi understudy. Cellulolytic components of the fruits are degraded; the fruits are deteriorated and are lost to the postharvest pathogens.
The production of cellulase (C1 and CX) by the three pathogenic fungi isolated from banana on seven different media was investigated. All the three pathogens were able to produce cellulase in one or the other media tried. Medium G supported good growth and maximum enzyme production by the three fruit-rot fungi. Supplementation of medium A with carboxymethyl cellulose (medium C) as the substrate did not make much difference in the degree of cellulase production, suggesting the constitutive nature of the enzyme produced by the fungi understudy
Studies on population dynamics of leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) on transgenic Bt cotton were carried out in the farmers fields in Central Telangana agro climatic zone of Andhra Pradesh during 2009-10 and 2010-11 Kharif season. The incidence of leaf hopper (green jassid) was found moderate to high in 2009-10 crop season (0.74 to 10.82/leaf), where as moderate level was noticed in 2010-11 crop season (0.57 to 6.02/leaf). The peak incidence was observed from the second fortnight of October to first fortnight of November in 2009-10 (10.11 to 10.82/leaf) and in the season of 2010-11, the peak incidence was noticed in mid September to first fortnight of October (6.02 to 5.48/leaf). There was no significant difference of leaf hopper populations recorded among the various Bt cotton genotypes.
The present study investigates on the marine bacteria; samples were collected from Nellore costal region Krishnapatnam beach in Andhra Pradesh, India, during the month of October, 2010. The selected bacterial isolates were identified by using FAME fingerprints i.e. fatty acid analysis using a commercially available device that directs a stream of compressed air across a section of the GC column, is used to focus peaks at the head of the column. When combined with a rapid sample processing method that uses smaller volumes of solvents, it becomes possibly the best method to identify bacteria. The bacterial strain collected was identified as Vibrio gazogenes.
Dermatophytes colonize the keratinized skin layer attacking hair, nail & skin. In recent years we have experienced that the dermatophytes are gaining access to the deeper sites. As a result, dermatophytes are beginning to adapt a symbiotic relationship with human tissue causing systemic mycosis. The number of clinical cases of dermatophytes causing systemic fungal infections is low. We have come across four dermatophytic agents causing infection beyond non-superficial sites. Three of the four isolates belong to the Trichophyton genus and the fourth belongs to Microsporum genus. The first isolate identified as Trichophyton rubrum (recovered from lung biopsy), the second isolate Trichophyton tonsurans (recovered from cornea), the 3rd isolate identified as Trichophyton violaceum (recovered from occipital bone) and the 4th isolate Microsporum gypseum (recovered from BAL specimen). We assume that more infections caused by dermatophytic agents will be seen in the future, and turning this group of fungi as an opportunistic pathogenic entity capable of causing local, systemic and disseminated fungal infection.
Superficial Mycotic Agents (Dermatophytes)
Dermatophytes are known to cause site-specific mycosis involving dead skin layers such as the stratum corneum and remain confined to the hair, skin and nails1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 . Dermatophytes are made up of three genera; Microsporum, Trichophyton & Epidermophyton infecting superficial skin, hair & nail of normally immunocompetent hosts1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9. Such anatomical sites have the required pH, temperature and nutritional requirements for the dermatophytes 8 . As a result Dermatophytes are restricted to invade deeper site.
A basidiomycete, Fomitopsis feei (AY515327.1) was grown on Yeast extract Malt extract Broth medium (YEMB), Malt Extract Broth (MEB) and YEMB amended with extracts prepared from six agricultural wastes namely, whey, sugarcane bagasse, groundnut bran, rice bran, saw dust, dried stems of sweet sorghum individually and its exopolysaccharide production, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and enzymatic activities were assayed with culture filtrates after 10 and 20 days of incubation. Exopolysaccharide production (6.6 g/lit.) was high in the medium supplemented with the extract of sweet sorghum after 20 days of incubation. Maximum growth inhibition zone (19mm) was observed on Escherichia coli with 10 days incubated culture medium supplemented with rice bran. Ten days incubated culture medium supplemented with saw dust showed maximum conidial germination inhibition (99.5%) of Curvularia lunata. Maximum antioxidant activity (93.5%) was observed with rice bran extract containing culture medium after 10 days of incubation. Lignin peroxidase (302 U/ml) and lipase activities (7.4 µm) were high in cultures amended with rice bran extract in their 10 days of incubation. Laccase (142 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase (40 U/ml) activities were high in the cultures amended with whey in their 10 and 20 days of incubations respectively. These results could be useful for evaluating liquid media to enhance Fomitopsis feei mycelial biomass and bio active substances