Performance of seedlings of Tectona grandis were examined for six months under three different doses of N and P (50,100, 150 and 25, 50 , 75 mg respectively) and their combinations for six months under sodic soil condition. Teak seedlings when treated with different doses of N, P, K and their combination exhibited maximum growth at maximum dose of N (150 mg) among individual fertilizer and overall maximum growth for N+P (100 + 75 mg) among combination of fertilizer.
Pharmaceutical drugs, hazardous chemical compounds and other products must be evaluated for their hematological toxic potential for their safety use. In vitro CFU-GM clonogenic assay is one of the best test systems to evaluate the adverse toxic effects of xenobiotics on the blood forming system. The test involves exposing the mice bone marrow cells to various test substances at different concentrations and estimating the inhibition of the proliferation of the CFU-GM colonies. This technique is best use for determining the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD). It describes the use of in vitro CFU-GM assay for characterizing and predicting hazards to humans.
The mandibular denture is more likely to be displaced during Function than the maxillary denture. This situation is more pronounced with bone resorption .An impression technique for the polished surfaces of the denture that comes in contact with lip, cheek, and tongue was evaluated. Comparison was done with a polished surface denture and a denture made of conventional method of arbitrary carved surfaces. The study was carried out on 18 patients and the results proved that patients were more satisfied by the polished surface denture
Nosocomial infections are of serious problems in hospital. In addition, they are imposed heavy costs on hospitals, causing increased hospitalization time, increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the epidemiological status of nosocomial infections in the Medical Ward of a tertiary care hospital.
The patients admitted in the Department of Medicine were included in this study.
The present study has been done on 80 patients of Medicine Wards (MW) including Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of CSSMU, Lucknow. Among them, 65 (81.3%) were from Medical Ward and 15 (18.7%) were from MICU. This study was conducted between January to June, 2011. The average patient’s stay in both MW and MICU was 13.56 days. All the 80 patients were clinically examined and only 18 patients were selected for the study of nosocomial infection on clinical grounds. A total of 42 different types of specimens were collected from 18 nosocomially infective patients. In 5 specimens, there was no yield of any bacterial organism. The predominant bacterial isolates both in MW and MICU were Escherichia coli (40.5%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Acinetobacter spp (13.5%), Pseudomonos aeruginosa (10.8% ), Enterococcus faecalis (8.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%).
Bacterial isolates in MW and MICU were similar meaning thereby that it is auto infection. Nosocomial infection was more common in patients who stayed for longer period in hospital. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are predominant to cause nosocomial infection.
To see the efficacy of which single micronutrient contributed more to the sputum conversion time.
It is double-blind placebo controlled study in which new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin A or zinc or vitamin & zinc both. Patients were asked to deliver their sputum at weekly interval to measure positivity of bacteria.
A total of 260 patients were enrolled in the study among them 214 patients completed the study. Patient’s mean age was almost similar (p>0.05) at enrolment in all 4 groups (Group A=31, Group B=29.9, Group C=30.6 and Group D=30.9 years). Sputum positivity grade +3 was most prevalent. Patients in Group D (Vitamin A & Zinc) showed earlier sputum conversion time (4.1±1.3; mean±sd) compare with that in the other groups. However, the difference was not significant
Combination of Vitamin A & Zinc supplementation reduces sputum smear conversion time but it failed to show superiority other groups.
Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are considered as safe additives to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microbes in food and feed. The present study deals with the screening of three standard strains of lactobacilli like Lactobacillus casei(NCIM No. 2732), Lactobacillus fermentum(NCIM No. 2166) and Lactobacillus plantarum(NCIM No. 2373) for bacteriocin production. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against two food borne pathogens, E.coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the three strains, L.caseiwas found to be the most potent based on the zones of inhibition recorded against both the test organisms. The L.caseibacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Physico-chemical characterization of the partially purified bacteriocin revealed that the compound was relatively stable up to 700C for 30 min. Further heat treatment led to complete loss of activity. The pH stability studies of bacteriocin showed that there was a significant increase in the antibacterial activity from a pH of 3-7; no activity was recorded beyond pH 11. Evaluation of antibacterial activity at different storage periods at 40C revealed that up to 7 days the activity was stable and thereafter there was a gradual decrease in the activity. The proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin was confirmed by treatment with trypsin.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is being used as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow reconstitution. Separation, processing and cry preservation of UCB samples in large numbers for storage in cord blood banks ideally needs to be partially automated to allow large numbers of samples to be processed efficiently. Aim of the present study was to carried out for standardization of collection, processing, cry preservation and quantification of CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells in umbilical cord blood. A total of 420 umbilical cord blood units were collected. Samples were analyzed for CD34+ cells concentration and viability of mononuclear cells were done on all the samples. The mean of the CD34+ cells concentration was 1.99± 0.82 % (range 0.4-4.5) on baseline period. The mean of the CD34+ cells concentration was 1.14± 0.85 % (range 0.2-3.8) on six month. The mean of the viability of mononuclear cells was 81.80 ±3.73℅ (range 76-91) on baseline period. The viability of mononuclear cells count at six month was 64.24± 2.70℅ (range 61-70). The viability loss of mononuclear cells from baseline to six month was 20.9℅. The mean of the total nucleated cells count was 11.36 ± 4.34 cells/ µl, (0.67- 16.68). In conclusion, the method demonstrates that UCB units can be routinely processed in a closed system that also achieves a significant reduction in storage needs and related costs, while maintaining quantity and quality of the haematopoitic stem cells.
Keratin waste is generated in large amounts from various industrious as well as a by-product of commercial poultry and leather processing units and is highly resistant to degradation by conventional proteolytic enzymes viz. Pepsin, Papain and Subtilisin. Keratinases are a particular class of proteolytic enzymes that display the capability of degrading insoluble keratin substrates by diverse microbes. In the present study we have tested the keratinolytic ability of our lab isolate Bacillus sp. Ker17 strain by using four different keratin wastes under submerged fermentation at 37 °C temperature and pH 9.0 Among different keratins added to basal medium, nails were effectively degraded about 97.9(±0.2) % within about 5.3 (±0.2) days where soluble protein produced was 37.7 ±2.0 mg/ml and protease activity exhibited at 343.1 ±0.1 U/ml. However, different keratin wastes degradation time varied from 5.3 to12.5 days. Ker17 strain can be an effective tool for the processing and or management of solid keratin litter and gives a remedy for environmental concern over abundant keratinaceous waste conversion to value added product formation in biotech industry with its promising keratinolytic abilities.
The influence of the physiological factors on the production of antibacterial metabolite by two actinomycetes strains, LAM1 and LAM2 isolated from fresh water systems of Karimnagar were studied.LAM1 showed highest antibacterial activity after seven days of incubation while LAM2 after ten days of incubation at 30°C. Optimization of antibacterial metabolites in batch cultures has been carried out. All the strains were able to grow in all the tested carbon sources. However maximum zone of inhibition was observed when cultures supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source followed by glucose and starch. Cultures containing fructose and maltose did not show any zone of inhibition. The cultures supplemented with sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have shown highest zone of inhibition followed by peptone. The presence of iron and manganese could play an important role in the promotion of antibiotic production.
The following report describes a case of nonvital immature permanent tooth with foreign object impacted in the periapical region.
Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth can become complicated with the presence of foreign objects in the canal, which acts a continuous source of pain and infection. The chances of these objects getting impacted periapically increases in case of teeth with open apices. These objects can be easily retrieved if they are located within the pulp chamber but once the object has been pushed apically their retrieval may be complicated. Apical surgery may sometimes be necessary. The following report describes a case of nonvital immature permanent tooth with foreign object impacted in the periapical region. The treatment included retrieval of foreign object through periapical surgery followed by retrograde sealing with MTA. MTA has been advocated for use as an apical barrier because of its sealing capabilities, ability to set in the presence of moisture, its biocompatibility and ability to induce hard tissue formation.
12 month follow up of the case showed progressive healing clinically and reduction in the size of the periapical lesion.
Proteomics is emerging technology that is approach to the study of complete complement of protein, trnascriptomics and genomics disparity in large scale as a result of beneficial in drug discovery and development process. A handful of disease biomarker is at present worn usually for population screening disease identification, prediction, monitoring of therapy, and expect of therapeutic response. Unluckily, most of the biomarker goes through from low sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic value mainly to unusual disease in inhabitant’s transmission program. Require new disease biomarkers so as to will additional improve our ability to detect, prognoses, and predict therapeutic response in many types of disease. Novel biomarker discovery and drug target justification are highly complex and supply-rigorous processes, requiring an integral use of various tools, approaches and information. The newly developed proteomic technology features elevated-throughput similar examination of thousands of proteins in individual patients and amount populations and thus opens up the opportunity of given that more details at a global level on the molecular mechanisms. With frequently efficient public databases, bioinformatics can contribute to these processes by providing functional information of target candidates and correlating this information to the biological pathways. In this review, we summarize up to role of drug discovery date advance of bioinformatics application in proteomic research on biomarker discovery and drug target rationale. Particularly, we highlight how Proteomics in identification of new targets for drug discovery and new biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases can facilitate the proteomic studies of biomarker identification and drug target validation.
CFU -GM assay is used to predict myelosuppression of cells caused by chemical induction as well as to find the haematotoxic potential of chemical compounds and the harmful effects of xenobiotics on the proliferative ability of the progenitors. CFU–GM was assessed on different concentrations (4×10-8 mg/ml to 4×10-1 mg/ml) of potassium nitrate in the bone marrow taken from Charles Foster (CF) rats under inverted microscope at 25X magnification. No such effect of the potassium nitrate was seen which could be related to the molecular mechanism of toxic effect of potassium nitrate used in the study.
Efficacy of aqueous extracts of different plant parts and biocontrol agents was tested against the growth of three post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana (Macrophomina phaseolina R-4242, Fusarium oxysporum sp. QJC- 1403 and Nigrospora oryzae NRRL 54030).The plant extracts when applied as pre- and post-inoculation treatments were effective in controlling the growth of the three pathogenic fungi. Extracts of medicinal plants like Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globulus and Ocimum sanctum were effective in inhibiting the growth of N.oryzae, while the extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum effectively inhibited the pathogenic activity of all three pathogens under investigation. Out of the different bioagents tried, Penicillium citrinum and Streptomyces spp. could effectively control the growth of the three fruit-rot fungi under in vivo conditions
The amount of nitrate and phosphate, considered as major inorganic nutrients-cum-pollutants of municipal waste pipes were monitored in the water of a tropical river Gomti in Lucknow city during summer, rainy and winter seasons during 2009. All the samples from the 6 selected sites of Gomti river in the vicinity of this mega city showed the levels of nitrate and phosphate ranged between 14.02-49.13 and 0.16-4.32 mg L-1 respectively, which were beyond the permissible limits (10 mg L-1 NO3 – and 0.1 mg L-1 PO4 3- ) in all the seasons. The maximum values of nitrate and phosphate were recorded during rainy season possibly due to excess runoff of the effluent mixed water through waste pipe lines. Trapa natans (Water chestnut) commonly cultivated aquatic crop in the region was cultured in the 20 L plastic tubs containing Gomti river water, under simulated net house conditions, for 3 weeks. Trapa natans removed nitrate and phosphate upto 71.34 and 74.64% respectively which was significant. Increase of 8.29, 14.59, 70.44 and 24.07% was recorded in the fresh wt., lamina length, protein in fruit and chlorophyll in leaves of Trapa natans respectively.
Medicinal properties of many Indian herbal plants are yet to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activity, cytopathic and cytotoxicity effects of Tylophora indica, Curcuma amada and Urtica dioica. Various parts of the plants were collected and shade dried. The solvents used for extraction of plants were water, ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion method. Normal and multi drug resistant bacterial strains of E.coli, P.aeruginosa were used. Curcuma amada was found to exhibit highest toxicity against both the bacterial strains. But none of the plant exhibited activity over multi drug resistant bacterial strains. Further in vitro cytopathic and cytotoxic effects were determined for Tylophora indica, Curcuma amada and Urtica dioica upon BHK-21 fibroblast cell lines. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts were determined by calculating the IC50 values. The highest cytotoxicity was found in alcoholic extracts obtained from Tylophora indica with IC50 value ~20µg/ml respectively.
Nitrate can cause multiple physiological effects if allowed to build up to high concentrations in animals. This work is concerned with the study of short term (14 days oral intoxication) nitrate exposure to male and female Charles foster rats that were divided into 4 groups. Ist group was allowed free access to distilled water whereas IInd, IIIrd and IVth groups were provided with water possessing nitrate concentration 45 mgL-1 , 90 mgL-1 and 135 mgL-1 NO3 – respectively. Under these conditions the haematological parameters such as T-RBC count, Hct and Hb showed increasing trend while TLC and blood platelets showed decrease in response to the stress imposed. Certain variations were observed in differential leucocytes count. Nitrate contaminated water seems to have disturbed the physiology and metabolism of experimental mammals (rats).
Growth performance and biomass of teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings were examined under three different doses of Nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 mg) and Phosphorous (25, 50 and 75 mg) individually as well as in combination with 300g of Farm Yard Manure on sodic soil in Eastern U P in Northern India. Results reveal that a dose of 100mg Nitrogen was required to achieve maximum growth when Teak seedlings were treated with individual doses of Nitrogen and Phosphorous. However, the required dose of Nitrogen was only 50mg when combined with 50 mg of Phosphorous and300g of Farm Yard Manure.
The rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases that represent a public health problem, like tuberculosis, is a challenging problem. The sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) makes it a potential diagnostic test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in samples with low bacillary load. A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the efficiency of PCR as compared to other routine diagnostics like smear microscopy and culture, amongst sputum samples and blood samples. Total 250 blood and sputum samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS patients. Sputum samples were stained with ZN stain, then decontaminated and cultured on LJ medium (gold standard) and PCR, whereas blood samples were processed only for PCR. Out of 250 cases, 49 were AFB smear positive (19.6%), 56 (22.4%) culture positive and PCR from sputum was positive in 69 (27.6%). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were 91.5% and 86.0% respectively and the positive and negative predictive values were 87.0% and 91.0% respectively. It also identified 13 smear negative and culture-negative cases as positive, whereas in case of blood sample (n=250), only 15 (6.0%) were PCR positive. The higher amount of TB positivity by PCR compared to culture & smear emphasize the role of PCR as a first line diagnostic tool in detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in sputum samples in HIV population as PCR is rapid, sensitive and cost effective compared to conventional diagnostic methods.
α-Amylase is a significant enzymes employed in the starch processing industries for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. It has a wide range of applications in many industries such as baking, brewing, wine and textile etc. Hundred filamentous fungi from various soil samples in the region of Lucknow city were isolated and screened for α-amylase synthesis. Excluding, Aspergillus nidulans (ANid-2) and Aspergillus terreus (ATer-2), all other α-amylase producing fungal strains were hyper active in the Starch Agar medium as compared to their growth in Potato Dextrose Agar medium. Species belonging to Fusarium and Trichoderma showed zero production of extra cellular α-amylase. On the other hand, out of 100, only 15 fungal strains of 2 genera viz. Aspergillus and Alternaria were found potent for α-amylase production, however, Aspergillus niger (ANig-4) strain was found highly efficient in the production of α-amylase. It is considered that Aspergillus niger (ANig-4) is a better option for the synthesis of α-amylase in the industrial sectors.
Opportunistic infections of the gastrointestinal tract have played a critical role in determining symptomatic illness in immuno compromised individuals. In recent years intestinal infections such as Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Isospora are becoming more prevalent in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome. Strongyloides stercoralis infections can lead to hyper infection syndrome and found to be lethal in immuno compromised patients the present study was under taken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV sero positive patients. Stool samples from 166 HIV infected patients with diarrhoea and 123 HIV infected patients without diarrhoea were examined for intestinal parasites by microscopy. Intestinal parasites were seen in 69.2% HIV patients with diarrhoea as compare to their presence in 30.08% HIV patients without diarrhoea.