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Recent Articles

Effect of Gender on Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential



 The most constant and most important BAEP waves from the clinical point of view are waves I, III & V. Their measurements include absolute latency and interpeak latency. The Interpeak latencies represent conduction time through relay stations of auditory pathway in the brainstem. Thus IPL I-III is a measure of conduction from acoustic nerve to pontomedullary region, III-V conduction in the more rostral pontine and midbrain portion of the pathway and I-V reflects the total brainstem conduction time. Concerning electrophysiological measures, it appears that at least for middle and late evoked potentials male and female differences appear in adulthood. There appears to be less agreement among researchers with respect to the age at which gender differences are evident with the auditory brainstem response. The aim of our study is to find out the effect of gender on BAEP waves latencies and amplitudes. We assigned one hundred and five subjects for study. Out of them 55 were males and 50 females between the age group of 20-35 years. Wave III and wave V latencies & I-III and I-V interpeak latencies were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in females than in males. The difference in mean wave V latency between males & females was 0.18 ms. The significant changes in the BAEPs in our study support the possible role of gender as contributive factors for normal variations.

Effect of Polished Surfaces of Lower Complete Denture on Its Stability


 The mandibular denture is more likely to be displaced during Function than the maxillary denture. This situation is more pronounced with bone resorption .An impression technique for the polished surfaces of the denture that comes in contact with lip, cheek, and tongue was evaluated. Comparison was done with a polished surface denture and a denture made of conventional method of arbitrary carved surfaces. The study was carried out on 18 patients and the results proved that patients were more satisfied by the polished surface denture

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococcus Species Isolated From Clinical Samples in South India



 Enterococci are common cause of hospital acquired infection and have become progressively more resistant to antibiotic. Among the 13 Enterococcus species ninety percentage of Enterococcal infection are due to Enterococcus faecalis .E. faecalis is a causative agent for nosocomial infection. The present study was carried out to asses the changing trends in antibiotic susceptibility of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples from Gulbarga region.122 samples were collected from various hospitals and diagnostic centers in Gulbarga region. The clinical isolates were identified by Facklam and Collins conventional method. The susceptibility tests were done against vancomycin, ampicillin, oxacillin, rifamycin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, gentamycin, teicoplanin and streptomycin by Kirby bauer method. MIC of resistant E. faecalis isolates were determined by NCCLS method. In our study, E. faecalis strains found to be 50% multi-drug resistant and the resistance was more in case of vancomycin antibiotic. The E. faecium isolates showed high resistance to gentamycin and streptomycin among the few MDR strains. E. durans were susceptible to all the antibiotic expect streptomycin and E. gallinarium were found susceptible to all antibiotics. The MIC’s determined of the 12 strains, showed the prevalence of HLAR and HLGR among the E .faecalis isolates. The present study reveals for the first time emergence of vanocmycin resistant enterococci from this part of world and indicates the magnitude of antibiotic resistance in and around the study area.

Nosocomial Infections in the Patients Admitted in the Medicine Ward of a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India: an Epidemiological Study




 Nosocomial infections are of serious problems in hospital. In addition, they are imposed heavy costs on hospitals, causing increased hospitalization time, increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the epidemiological status of nosocomial infections in the Medical Ward of a tertiary care hospital.

Study design 

 Descriptive-analytical study.


 The patients admitted in the Department of Medicine were included in this study.


 The present study has been done on 80 patients of Medicine Wards (MW) including Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of CSSMU, Lucknow. Among them, 65 (81.3%) were from Medical Ward and 15 (18.7%) were from MICU. This study was conducted between January to June, 2011. The average patient’s stay in both MW and MICU was 13.56 days. All the 80 patients were clinically examined and only 18 patients were selected for the study of nosocomial infection on clinical grounds. A total of 42 different types of specimens were collected from 18 nosocomially infective patients. In 5 specimens, there was no yield of any bacterial organism. The predominant bacterial isolates both in MW and MICU were Escherichia coli (40.5%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Acinetobacter spp (13.5%), Pseudomonos aeruginosa (10.8% ), Enterococcus faecalis (8.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%). 


 Bacterial isolates in MW and MICU were similar meaning thereby that it is auto infection. Nosocomial infection was more common in patients who stayed for longer period in hospital. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are predominant to cause nosocomial infection.

Role of Vitamin A and Zinc Supplemantation on Sputum Smear Conversion Time in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients




 To see the efficacy of which single micronutrient contributed more to the sputum conversion time.


It is double-blind placebo controlled study in which new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin A or zinc or vitamin & zinc both. Patients were asked to deliver their sputum at weekly interval to measure positivity of bacteria. 


 A total of 260 patients were enrolled in the study among them 214 patients completed the study. Patient’s mean age was almost similar (p>0.05) at enrolment in all 4 groups (Group A=31, Group B=29.9, Group C=30.6 and Group D=30.9 years). Sputum positivity grade +3 was most prevalent. Patients in Group D (Vitamin A & Zinc) showed earlier sputum conversion time (4.1±1.3; mean±sd) compare with that in the other groups. However, the difference was not significant


 Combination of Vitamin A & Zinc supplementation reduces sputum smear conversion time but it failed to show superiority other groups.

Extraction, Partial Purification and Cha Racterization of Bac Teriocin From Lactobacillus Casei Ncim No.2732



 Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are considered as safe additives to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microbes in food and feed. The present study deals with the screening of three standard strains of lactobacilli like Lactobacillus casei(NCIM No. 2732), Lactobacillus fermentum(NCIM No. 2166) and Lactobacillus plantarum(NCIM No. 2373) for bacteriocin production. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against two food borne pathogens, E.coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the three strains, L.caseiwas found to be the most potent based on the zones of inhibition recorded against both the test organisms. The L.caseibacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Physico-chemical characterization of the partially purified bacteriocin revealed that the compound was relatively stable up to 700C for 30 min. Further heat treatment led to complete loss of activity. The pH stability studies of bacteriocin showed that there was a significant increase in the antibacterial activity from a pH of 3-7; no activity was recorded beyond pH 11. Evaluation of antibacterial activity at different storage periods at 40C revealed that up to 7 days the activity was stable and thereafter there was a gradual decrease in the activity. The proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin was confirmed by treatment with trypsin.

Collection, Processing, Cryopresevation and Quantification of Cd34+ Stem Cells in Umbilical Cord Blood'



 Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is being used as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow reconstitution. Separation, processing and cry preservation of UCB samples in large numbers for storage in cord blood banks ideally needs to be partially automated to allow large numbers of samples to be processed efficiently. Aim of the present study was to carried out for standardization of collection, processing, cry preservation and quantification of CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells in umbilical cord blood. A total of 420 umbilical cord blood units were collected. Samples were analyzed for CD34+ cells concentration and viability of mononuclear cells were done on all the samples. The mean of the CD34+ cells concentration was 1.99± 0.82 % (range 0.4-4.5) on baseline period. The mean of the CD34+ cells concentration was 1.14± 0.85 % (range 0.2-3.8) on six month. The mean of the viability of mononuclear cells was 81.80 ±3.73℅ (range 76-91) on baseline period. The viability of mononuclear cells count at six month was 64.24± 2.70℅ (range 61-70). The viability loss of mononuclear cells from baseline to six month was 20.9℅. The mean of the total nucleated cells count was 11.36 ± 4.34 cells/ µl, (0.67- 16.68). In conclusion, the method demonstrates that UCB units can be routinely processed in a closed system that also achieves a significant reduction in storage needs and related costs, while maintaining quantity and quality of the haematopoitic stem cells.

Keratinolytic Protease Production From Keratinaceous Wastes



 Keratin waste is generated in large amounts from various industrious as well as a by-product of commercial poultry and leather processing units and is highly resistant to degradation by conventional proteolytic enzymes viz. Pepsin, Papain and Subtilisin. Keratinases are a particular class of proteolytic enzymes that display the capability of degrading insoluble keratin substrates by diverse microbes. In the present study we have tested the keratinolytic ability of our lab isolate Bacillus sp. Ker17 strain by using four different keratin wastes under submerged fermentation at 37 °C temperature and pH 9.0 Among different keratins added to basal medium, nails were effectively degraded about 97.9(±0.2) % within about 5.3 (±0.2) days where soluble protein produced was 37.7 ±2.0 mg/ml and protease activity exhibited at 343.1 ±0.1 U/ml. However, different keratin wastes degradation time varied from 5.3 to12.5 days. Ker17 strain can be an effective tool for the processing and or management of solid keratin litter and gives a remedy for environmental concern over abundant keratinaceous waste conversion to value added product formation in biotech industry with its promising keratinolytic abilities.

Healing of Bone Defects by Autogenous Platelet Rich Plasma in Pediatric Patients



 OBJECTIVES – Objective of this study is to evaluate the new bone formation in bony defects after placement of PRP and its efficacy of regenerative potential .

METHOD – Twenty five pediatric patients were selected for the study and PRP was extracted from patients own blood and placed in defect in all patients. Post operative clinical and radiographic observation was done at 1st,4th and 6 th month.

RESULTS – Faster bone healing in all patients was observed.

CONCLUSION – It can be concluded by the study that PRP is a better source of bone induction growth factors and regeneration of bone can be done at faster rate which is a favorable biological response similar to natural healing process

Physiological Factors Influencing the Production of Antibacterial Substance by Fresh Water Actinobacteria



 The influence of the physiological factors on the production of antibacterial metabolite by two actinomycetes strains, LAM1 and LAM2 isolated from fresh water systems of Karimnagar were studied.LAM1 showed highest antibacterial activity after seven days of incubation while LAM2 after ten days of incubation at 30°C. Optimization of antibacterial metabolites in batch cultures has been carried out. All the strains were able to grow in all the tested carbon sources. However maximum zone of inhibition was observed when cultures supplemented with glycerol as a carbon source followed by glucose and starch. Cultures containing fructose and maltose did not show any zone of inhibition. The cultures supplemented with sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have shown highest zone of inhibition followed by peptone. The presence of iron and manganese could play an important role in the promotion of antibiotic production.